Dental Outreach Work In Zimbabwe

 

How to proceed step by step

 

 

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Quentin Voellinger, 1998

Secours Dentaire International

 

 

 


INDEX

 

Introduction

 

First Step: First inquiring

 

Second Step: Establishment of a provisional ORW program

 

Third Step: Contact with the local authorities

 

Forth Step: Contact with the Rural Health Centres and Schools

 

Fifth Step: Definitive program

 

Sixth Step: Materials

 

Seventh Step: Organization

 

Eighth Step: Going out into the bush

 

Ninth Step: Coming back to the base

 

Tenth Step: Adapt your system in function of the local needs

 

Eleventh Step: Importance of the maintenance of the materials

 

Twelfth Step: Evaluation of the costs of your outreach work program

 

Last words

 

 

Introduction

 

Zimbabwe is a landlocked in south-central Africa shaped roughly like a water droplet falling from the Caprivi Strip of Namibia. It is situated entirely within the tropics -between 15 degrees south and 22 degrees south latitude - but most Zimbabwe consists of a highveld plateau lying between 900 and 1700 metres over sea level. The country enjoys a remarkably temperate climate. The rainy season is between November and February. Zimbabwe is bound on the north-west by Zambia, on the east and north-east by Mozambique, on the south - west by Botswana, and on the south by the Republic of South Africa. Four countries (Zambia, Zimbabwe, Botswana and Namibia) meet at a single point at the country’s westernmost extreme. Zimbabwe’s maximum width is 725 km, while north to south it stretches 835 km. The total area is 390’580 sq km, roughly about 9,5 times Switzerland’s size.

 

The capital of Zimbabwe is Harare and the whole country is divided into 8 provinces. English is the official language, Shona the first national language and Ndebele the second national language. Besides these 2 indigenous languages, about 15 dialects are spoken in Zimbabwe, depending on which tribe is concerned. The population grows at a rate of 3.5% and in 1991 (last official census), Zimbabwe had approximately around 11million inhabitants. The currency used is the Zimbabwe dollar (Z$) and the exchange rate in 1996 was CHF 1.-  to Z$ 7.7.-.

 

Zimbabwe’s infrastructure is already on level which permits easy travelling, construction, introduction of institutions, industrial and health establishments. Despite of this, Zimbabwe’s economy is very low, but most of the inhabitants have access to school and health care facilities. Progress has been made in supplying arid regions with water in the development of irrigation projects for farming and agriculture.

 

 

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In all African countries, it has been established that in the domain of dentistry, the situation has deteriorated dramatically over the past thirty years. According to the World Health Organization, we are witnessing a devastating increase in the number of cavities and gum disease in this area of the world. Various factors such as the unfortunate modification of eating habits which include excessive sugar intake, the lack of knowledge of the mouth and dental diseases and of their prevention, the shortage of health services available including qualified staff and management and lack of equipment, the overall poor health of the general population can often mask or worsen a dental problem. Not to mention the harsh environment with its demographic problems both socio-economic and geographic, can all be attributed to this decline in oral health.

 

Efforts have been made to set up clinics and “help Africans help themselves” in treating dental and mouth pathologies, but it has become quite evident, that it is utopic to wait for impressive results in oral health on a long term. "Dental-Aid International" has introduced dental health education in schools and has invested time and money in such prophylaxis programs. A coherent and credible prophylaxis program will be the only way to lastingly improve the situation created by teeth and mouth diseases in Africa.

 

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Chikombedzi Mission Hospital is located in the south-east region (Chiredzi South) of Zimbabwe and belongs to the province of Masvingo. It is 96 km east of Rutenga, it is 128 km south of Chiredzi and 244 km from Masvingo. The population area served by this hospital is 30’000 for Chikombedzi, plus rural areas for a total of 100’000.

 

 

 

 

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Chikombedzi Mission Hospital is owned and operated by the Free Methodist Church of Zimbabwe. The responsible authority is the board of directors appointed by the said church (Actual president Mr N. Zanamwe). The Medical Superintendant is the person in charge of the whole hospital, he is a licensed medical doctor and lives at the hospital complex (actual MSI is Dr Sibanda). The Dental Department is an integral part of the 160 bed hospital and has been fully equipped by the Swiss Foundation called “Secours Dentaire International” (SDI) since November 1993 (also called Dental-Aid International). The clinic includes a fixed dental unit plus a mobile dental unit (MDU), which is used for the outreach work in the Chiredzi South area. Most of the materials of the dental clinic have been financed through the regional Swiss Rotary Clubs and the Swiss Association of Albert Schweitzer.

 

 

 

 

 

At the Dental Department, the working staff is composed of:

 

A dental therapist with Zimbabwean diploma:               Mr Manuel Chivavo (Upper-L)

An exodontist (aid-nurse trained by SDI):                     Mr Naison Lukas Chauke (Lower-L)

An exodontist (aid-nurse trained by SDI):                     Mr Clemens Sibanda (Lower-R)

An exodontist (aid-nurse trained by SDI):                     Mr Nelson Gonese (Upper-R)

 

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Chikombedzi Mission Hospital is surrounded by 14 bush clinics (called RHC for “rural health centre”) which have been constructed by the Zimbabwe Ministry of Health. These clinics are located 25 to 100 km from the operation base which sits in Chikombedzi.

 

Each of the rural health centres (RHC's) are in the hands of a state certified nurse and at least one aid-nurse. Materials at their disposal in the bush clinics are essentially materials for emergency treatment (dressings, antibiotics … ). The major part of their work concerns the huge child welfare program and the local births. Two of the 14 RHC’s have a set of instruments for dental emergency treatments such as extractions and treatment of abscesses. The set is used by the state certified nurse in charge who has gone through an exodontist course of 3 months duration in Masvingo to become certified for applying such procedures.

 

After the dental clinic of Chikombedzi, the nearest dental clinic is to be found at Chiredzi Government Hospital (180 km) and the nearest maxillo-facial surgeon works at Bulawayo Government Hospital.

 

 

 

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FIRST STEP: First inquiring

 

 

Before you start anything in any given country you must first inform yourself on the organization and local rules of the health system. In our case Zimbabwe, we did not inquire enough at the beginning and with passing time, we realized Zimbabwe had a very strict and complex health system. You should make a rough check of all such details to avoid future obstacles with government authorities.

 

The whole health system in Zimbabwe is supervised by the Ministry of Health which registers all health professionals and health activities. Once you are registered (and this is in itself a very long procedure), you must apply for a work permit. Without such a permit, all your activities will be considered as illegal.

 

The Acting Director of the Dental Health Services in Harare is responsible for all dental health activities and supervises the systems in the provinces. At the province level sits a Provincial Medical Director (PMD) who supervises his districts. On top of each district sits a District Medical Officer (DMO) who supervises all Medical Superintendants of the hospitals of the district. This last Officer (DMO) is also responsible for the local dental services. Further more, if you intend to go into schools for dental health education, you will need approval from the District Health Education Officer.

 

 

There are other aspects to be considered before setting up such a programme including:

 

Š       How many schools are to be visited and how far are they ? Problem of transportation, costs ?

Š       Is there already a similar program running somewhere nearby the place you’ve chosen ? And if yes, how does it work ? What is the attendance?

Š       What is the capacity of payment ? Treatments for free ?  Do not forget costs of salaries, materials and maintenance ... must be covered

Š       In what conditions are the structures at disposal in the RHC's and are they O.K. to be used for installation of mobile dental unit (MDU). Is accommodation possible ? How are the roads and how is the accessibility during the rainy season?

Š       Did you want to introduce an outreach program or did the local population ask for such a program ?  Give preference to the second case.

Š       How can the instructed population follow your education, accessibility of tooth brush and paste, costs ...?

 

 

Once you have thought over the above mentioned points, you  must consider the question: “Are the factors inquired in your first evaluation more or less favourable to introduction of a dental prophylaxis program ? If the answer is yes, you may now begin with the local inquiries.

 

First you will get in touch with the Medical Superintendant of the hospital where the base of your activities sits. Together with the management of the hospital, you will localize the different rural health centres surrounding the area. In the case of Chikombedzi, the situation of the different rural health centres is as follows:

 

 

 

Masvingo Province, Chiredzi District

 

 

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Outreach Work catchment area

 

 

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SECOND STEP: Establishment of a provisional ORW program

 

Then, you will need to establish an outreach work program for the next 12 month period. Take into consideration the rainy season (roads passable) and the school holidays. During one ORW week, we usually drive to our next destination on Monday morning. Once arrived on the spot, the mobile dental unit (MDU) is equipped in the dental room of the RHC and then the dental staff meets the directors of the surrounding schools to organize the oral health instruction lessons. On Monday afternoon, the local children can return home with dental care information and inform their families of our stay at the RHC. Treatments can be delivered from Tuesday to Friday midday and on Friday afternoon, the MDU is packed and brought back to the base. For the year program, our first plan looked as follows:

 

 

Dental Department Chikombedzi Mission Hospital; Private Bag7075, Chiredzi, Zimbabwe

 

Outreach Work Programme For The Year 1996/1997

 

22 April - 25 April 1996 ; Malipati Clinic

6 May - 10 May 1996; Rutandare Clinic

20 May - 24 May 1996; Gezani Clinic

3 June - 7 June 1996; Samu Clinic

17 June - 21 June 1996; Dumisa Clinic

1 July - 5 July 1996; Davata Clinic

15 July - 19 July 1996; Muhlanguleni Clinic

29 July - 2 August 1996; Old Boli Clinic

16 September - 20 September 1996; Makambe Clinic

30 September - 4 October 1996; Chibwedziwa Clinic

14 October - 18 October 1996; Chilonga Clinic

28 October - 1 November 1996            ; Chambutta Clinic

11 November - 15 November 1996; Gezani Clinic

25 November - 29 November 1996; Rutandare Clinic

20 January - 24 January 1997; Malipati Clinic

3 February - 7 February 1997; Samu Clinic

17 February - 21 February 1997; Dumisa Clinic

3 March - 7 March 1997           ; Davata Clinic

17 March - 21 March1997; Muhlanguleni Clinic

31 March - 4 April 1997            ; Old Boli Clinic

 

First term: 16 January - 3 April 1996; Holiday: 4 April - 6 May 1996

Second term: 7 May - 8 August 1996; Holiday: 9 August - 9 September 1996

Third term: 10 Sept. - 5 December 1996; Holiday: 5 December - 7 January 1997

 

This program has been established on 12th of April 1996 in arrangement  with the actual dental staff and the hospital management. This program has to be consulted and supported by the hospital management and the hospital administration. The dental staff members will plan their holidays during the periods of school holidays to provide the good running of outreach work.

 

The running of the program will be controlled and extended during the visits of  SDI representatives.

 

Should the weather be inclement and/or roads impassable, the schedule will be adjusted to make the visit one week later. It maybe necessary to wait until road conditions improve (insert your new schedule on the regular schedule) In all cases the visits must be made up!

 

Signatures:___________                                            Date:___________

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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THIRD STEP: Contact with the local authorities

 

 

Before starting out, the District Medical Officer must be informed of your activities and must give you his approval for the program.

 

For the oral health education in the schools, you will meet the District Health Education Officer, who will need to give you his approval too and at the same time, he will be so enthused with your program and you might have the opportunity to receive all the addresses of the different schools in the district.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Addresses Of The Rural Health Centres & The Schools

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Place

Clinic / School

Nurse in charge / Headmaster

Address

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

CHILONGA

Chilonga RHC

Mr J. Bvindi

Chilonga RHC, P.O. Box 142, Chiredzi

 

 

 

Chikovo P

Mr Mepula

Private Bag 7104, Chiredzi

 

 

 

Chilonga P

Mr Mutangirwa

Private Bag 7049, Chiredzi

 

 

 

Chilonga S

Mr Museva

Private Bag 7097, Chiredzi

 

 

 

Gwaseche P

Mr ?

Private Bag 7069, Chiredzi

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

CHAMBUTTA

Chambutta RHC

Mrs R Chakauya

Chambutta RHC, P.O. Box 142, Chiredzi

 

 

 

Makhosiya P

Mr ?

Private Bag 7071, Chiredzi

 

 

 

Chambutta P

Mr ?

Private Bag 7064, Chiredzi

 

 

 

Chipinda P

Mr ?

Private Bag 7029, Chiredzi

 

 

 

Velemu P

Mr Chauke

Private Bag ? , Chiredzi

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

CHIBWEDZIVA

Chibwedziva RHC

Mrs S. Muzenda

Chibwedziva RHC, P.O. Box 142, Chiredzi

 

 

 

Chibwedziva P

Mr Makumi

Private Bag 7008, Chiredzi

 

 

 

Chibwedziva S

Mr Ticharwa

Private Bag 7096, Chiredzi

 

 

 

Masivamele P

Mr ?

Private Bag 7007, Chiredzi

 

 

 

Chingele P

Mr ?

Private Bag 7072, Chiredzi

 

 

 

Chingele S

Mr ?

Private Bag 7095, Chiredzi

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

MAKAMBE

Makambe RHC

Mrs r. Mashayanya

Makambe RHC, P.O. Box 142, Chiredzi

 

 

 

Makambe P

Mr Shuma

Private Bag 7047, Chiredzi

 

 

 

Makambe S

Mr Rukuni

Private Bag 7108, Chiredzi

 

 

 

Tichidya P

Mr Balloy

Private Bag 7079, Chiredzi

 

 

 

Chompani P

Mr ?

Private Bag 7053, Chiredzi

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

MUHLANGULENI

Muhlanguleni RHC

Mr H. Nyika

Muhlanguleni RHC, P.O. Box 142, Chiredzi

 

 

 

Muhlanguleni P

Mrs Muguewe

Private Bag 7033, Chiredzi

 

 

 

Muhlanguleni S

Mr Machaya

Private Bag 7038, Chiredzi

 

 

 

Machindu P

Mr Gwachara

Private Bag 7028, Chiredzi

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

OLD BOLI

Old Boli RHC

Mrs P. Dhewa

Old Boli RHC, P.O. Box 142, Chiredzi

 

 

 

Boli P

Mr Moyo

Private Bag 7034, Chiredzi

 

 

 

Malisanga P

Mr Mazuma

Private Bag 7052, Chiredzi

 

 

 

Majijimba P

Mr Moyo

Private Bag 7031, Chiredzi

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

GEZANI

Gezani RHC

Mr C. Sithole

Gezani RHC, P.O. Box 142, Chiredzi

 

 

 

Gezani P

Mr Maponde

Private Bag 7062, Chiredzi

 

 

 

Gezani S

Mr Gumbo

Private Bag 7105, Chiredzi

 

 

 

Chilugwi P

Mr Mubaiwa

Private Bag 7090, Chiredzi

 

 

 

Bondela P

Mr Chauke

Private Bag 7087, Chiredzi

 

 

 

Pukupela P

Mr Macheke

Private Bag 7066, Chiredzi

 

 

 

Makhanani P

Mr Mavu

Private Bag 7050, Chiredzi

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

RUTANDARE

Rutandare RHC

Mr C. Mhango

Rutandare RHC, P.O. Box 142, Chiredzi

 

 

 

Rutandare P

Mr Shumba

Private Bag 7039, Chiredzi

 

 

 

Maose P

Mr Zindove

Private Bag 7055, Chiredzi

 

 

 

Chigalo P

Mr Masetese

Private Bag 7068, Chiredzi

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

MALIPATI

Malipati RHC

Mrs G. Machicho

Malipati RHC, P.O. Box 142, Chiredzi

 

 

 

Malipati P

Mr Baloyi

Private Bag 7059, Chiredzi

 

 

 

Malipati S

Mr Ndevele

Private Bag 7086, Chiredzi

 

 

 

Ngwenyeni P

Mr N'Dlovu

Private Bag 7077, Chiredzi

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

DAVATA

Davata RHC

Mrs S. Gweyi

Davata RHC, P.O. Box 142, Chiredzi

 

 

 

Pusani P

Mr Murira

Private Bag 7056, Chiredzi

 

 

 

Davata P

Mr Magumise

Private Bag 7048, Chiredzi

 

 

 

Gwaivhi P

Mr Muthelisso

Private Bag 7076, Chiredzi

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

SAMU

Samu RHC

Mrs R.E. Mbiza

Samu RHC, P.O. Box 142, Chiredzi

 

 

 

Chishinya P

Mr Chinondiwana

Private Bag 7083, Chiredzi

 

 

 

Samu P

Mr Mhakeni

Private Bag 7080, Chiredzi

 

 

 

Mugivisa P

Mr Mupa

Private Bag 7099, Chiredzi

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

DUMISA

Dumisa RHC

Mrs E. Mugova

Dumisa RHC, P.O. Box 142, Chiredzi

 

 

 

Dumisa P

Mr Chauke

Private Bag 7081, Chiredzi

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Addresses Of The Chiefs & Headmen

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Chief Sengwe

Pusani School

 

Private Bag 7056, Chiredzi

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Headman Ngwenieni

Care of the local administrator

 

P.O.Box 199, Chiredzi

 

 

Headman Samu

Care of the local administrator

 

P.O.Box 199, Chiredzi

 

 

Headman Gezani

Care of the local administrator

 

P.O.Box 199, Chiredzi

 

 

Headmen Mpapa

Care of the local administrator

 

P.O.Box 199, Chiredzi

 

 

Headman Chilonga

Care of the local administrator

 

P.O.Box 199, Chiredzi

 

 

Headman Masimavele

Care of the local administrator

 

P.O.Box 199, Chiredzi

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

FORTH STEP: Contact with the RHC’s and schools

 

 

At this point, you know if an outreach program can be set up and is (or not) approved by the local authorities. Further more, you will know exactly which of the surrounding clinics could benefit from such a program. The next step will be to make a visit to each of your listed RHC’s and inquire about the necessity of prophylaxis lessons at schools (inquiring has to be done by the directors of the schools), about the necessity of dental treatments and at the same time, you will find out if the motivation and the cooperation of those responsible for the RHC’s are sufficient support your program. For the first visit, the following check-list has been established:

 

 

 

 

 

 

                       

                                    Questions To Ask During Your First Visit Into An ORW Area

 

                                                1. Introduce yourself and your activities, introduce the hospital and the dental department

                                                2. Ask for a meeting of about 30 minutes duration

                                                3. Introduce the Chikombedzi Mission Hospital Dental Department ORW program

                                                4. Explanation about your system of   

                                                            -treatment and referring

                                                            -prophylactic lessons at schools and screenings

                                                            -information for pregnant women

                                                5. Inform about your working hours: 8 am to 6 pm

                                                6.Give the program schedule of the week concerning the MDU and the school lessons

                                                7. Inform about the fee system and the importance of this financial support (trips and materials)

                                                8. Following up after your departure, give document “Indications for the responsible of the RHC”

                                                9. Give posters and ask for diffusion of the information, when are we coming …

                                                10. What kind of medicines are available at the RHC?

                                                11. Ask practical questions:     

                                                            -accommodation, dental room, showers, toilets, ...?

                                                            -rooms have to be locked, possibilities ?

                                                            -water: Where is the borehole, river water, ...?

                                                            -electricity, solar, ...?

 

                                                                                                                                                                                    QV, SDI, 08.08.98                                                                                                                                    

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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Chikombedzi Mission Hospital / Dental Department

 

Indications For The Responsible Of The Rural Health Centre

 

                                    A. Capacities of the dental team during outreach work with the mobile dental unit (MDU)

 

                                    a) Dental hygiene instruction to the patients                                    e) Extractions with local anesthesia

                                    b) Cleaning and scaling                                                                f) Little surgery like abscess drainage or suture points

                                    c) Deep scaling with local anesthesia                                             g) Prophylactic lessons at schools (grade 1 to 7)

                                    d) Temporary and definitive fillings with local anesthesia                   h) Screening of the children in all classes

 

                                    B. Capacities of the Dental Department at Chikombedzi

 

                                    a) All the treatments given by the MDU                                           d) Composites (esthetical fillings)

                                    b) Definitive root treatments for single root teeth                              e) Oral surgery (jaw fracture, tooth luxation, abscesses)

                                    c) Dental X-Rays

 

                                    C. Kind of problems which can appear after a treatment at the MDU

 

                                    EXTRACTING a tooth is like a small operation. There will be bleeding and later on some pain and swelling. This is normal and should

                                    be expected after an extraction. Inform the person about that fact. After extraction(s), two main problems can appear:

 

                                    One day after the operation, the socket still bleeds. Explain to the patient that he should not spit nor rinse his mouth. When he rests,

                                    he should keep his head up. He should not drink hot liquids like tea or coffee because they encourage bleeding. The patient has then

                                    first to bite firmly on cotton gauze for an hour, and again later if blood still comes out of the socket. Eventually, the nurse can do a

                                    suture point if that is possible. If the bleeding persists, refer the patient quickly to Chikombedzi Mission Hospital Dental department

                                    with a compress on the socket. Notice that any bleeding can be stopped by direct compression.

 

                                    Rarely, the development of a bone infection occurs (infected socket. The signs are pus, pain and bad smell. Clean the socket

                                    with a Chlorhexidine syringe and give an antibiotic:

 

                                    First choice:                   amoxicilline 250mg caps   adults                            2cap x 3/day during 7 days

                                                                                                                        children                         25mg/kg x 3/day during 5 days

 

                                    Second choice:   co-trimoxazole 80+400mg             adults                            1cap x 2/day during 7 days

                                                                                                                        children                         8mg+40mg/kg/d. during 5 days

 

                                    or                                 co-trimoxazole 20+100mg adults                            4cap x 2/day during 7 days

                                                                                                                        children                         8+40mg/kg/day during 5 days

 

                                    Third choice:      erythromycine 250mg       adults                            2cap x 3/day during 7 days

                                                                                                                        children                         50mg/kg7day during 5 days

 

                                    It is important to persist on the fact that an antibiotic has to be taken during the prescribed duration, even if the pain and the

                                    infection have disappeared. If necessary, give also a painkiller.

 

                                    It is possible that a patient complains about sensitivity or pain after having received a FILLING. Usually, the pain occurs

                                    during a few days only, the sensitivity can persist longer. Give some painkillers if necessary, but if pain remains after 3 weeks,

                                    refer the patient to Chikombedzi Mission Hospital Dental Department.

 

                                    After a SCALING or a CLEANING, the patient may complain about sensitivities appearing essentially during cold drinking

                                    and bleedings of the gums appearing during brushing of the teeth. Scaling or cleaning of the teeth induces a microtraumatism

                                    on the gums. These lesions disappear after a few days if oral hygiene is correctly maintained. Tell to the patient to go on with

                                    tooth cleaning 3 times a day, even if it hurts a little.

 

                                    The patients treated in outreach work by the MDU for a ROOT TREATMENT usually have received a second and a third

                                    appointment for Chikombedzi Dental Clinic. Pain can occur during a few days after the first intervention given by the MDU.

                                    Give a painkiller if necessary. Remind the patient that the next appointments are 100% necessary for a definitive treatment

                                    and for the conservation of the treated tooth.

 

 

                                                                                                                        QV, SDI, 22.07.98                                                                                                

 

 

 

FIFTH STEP: Definitive program

 

After your first visit to possible sites, you will make a proposal to the hospital management for a definitive program. This program takes into consideration the collaboration of the responsible you have met at the bush clinics. In our case, the provisional program became definitive.

 

SIXTH STEP: Materials

 

Your project is now beginning to take shape and you have the psychological support you need. At this time you need to think about the materials you will use for the ORW. We have made a list of all the materials needed. The mobile dental unit we have is completely collapsible and can be loaded on a 4 wheel drive Toyota truck.

 

 

 

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Check-list Of The ORW Equipment

 

 

 

 

 

SDI Code

 

 

 

SDI Code

 

Loading Accessories

 

 

 

 

MDU File

 

 

1

Canvas Cover

ZW

1

 

17

Loading Check-list

 

1

2

Ropes

ZW

2

 

18

ORW Statistics

 

1

3

Red & Blue Rack (Wedge)

QV

2

 

19

Reduced Map Of  The Region

 

1

4

White Board

QV

1

 

20

Check-list For ORW File

 

1

5

Little Water Tank

ZW

1

 

21

Certified Letter From Medical Superintendant

 

1

 

 

 

 

 

22

ORW Program Of The Year

 

1

 

Repair Materials

 

 

 

23

Daily Registration Patients MDU

 

10

6

Spare Valve Toyota

ZW

1

 

24

Agreement For Administration Of Anesthetics

 

15

7

Valve Key

ZW

1

 

25

Dental Clinic Of Chikombedzi Receipts

 

100

8

Bicycle Hand Pump

ZW

1

 

26

Oral Health Education Registration

 

20

9

Spare Tube

ZW

1

 

27

Check-list Forms & Medical-Aid Forms

 

1/10

10

Tyre Levers

ZW

2

 

28

Services & Rates

 

2

11

Crick & Handle Toyota

ZW

1

 

29

Memory-Aid For Teachers

 

20

12

Nut Spanner Toyota

ZW

1

 

30

Indications For Responsible Of The Clinics

 

20

13

Spare Wheel Toyota

ZW

1

 

31

Rate of ...

 

2

14

Tube Patch

ZW

1

 

32

Use Of The Dental Car

 

2

15

Glue For Tubes Repair

ZW

1

 

33

Costs Of ORW

 

2

16

Craft Knife (Cutter)

ZW

1

 

34

Monthly Accounts

 

2

 

 

 

 

 

35

Reports Of ORW To The MSI

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

36

Instruction For Use Of Generator

 

1

 

 

 

 

 

37

Evaluation Of ORW

 

2

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Generator Trunk Blue

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

38

Robin Generator RGD 3300 os (3000W, 24A)

9700

1

 

 

 

 

 

39

Set Of Spare Fuses

9705

1*

 

 

Compressor Trunk Blue

 

 

40

Set Of Various Packing

9708

1*

 

45

DUERR Compressor 5211 With Dryer

9901

1

41

Air Filter Robin

9709

1*

 

46

5 m Air Tube With Connection

9915

1

42

Oil Filter Robin

9710

1*

 

47

DUERR Compressor Filter

6027

2*

43

Gazoil Filter Robin

9711

1*

 

48

DUERR Desiccation Filter

6027 a

1*

44

Starter With Cable

9706 a

1*

 

49

Pneumatic Connection

6029

1

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Little Black Trunk

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

50

Stäuble Suction Machine with Safety Bottle, Big Suction Bottle and End

9906

1

 

 

 

 

 

51

Suction Tube

9913

1

 

 

 

 

 

52

Plastic Glasses

ZW

5

 

 

 

 

 

53

Ink Bottle

ZW

1

 

 

 

 

 

54

Spare Philips Lamp 35 Watts

9904 a

1

 

 

 

 

 

55

Philips Lamp (chase) (see n° 308 for Tripod)

9904

1

 

 

 

 

 

56

ORW Money Box With 20Z$ In Coins

ZW

1

 

 

 

 

 

57

Dental Study Model "Nissin"

9000

1

 

 

 

 

 

58

Enlarged Toothbrush P3-TB

9001

1

 

 

Middle Black Trunk

 

 

59

Mupani & Mubhubhunu Green Branches

Bush

20

 

80

Gas Bottle

ZW

2

60

Tool Box With

ZW

1

 

81

Reserve Gas Valve

ZW

1

61

* Starter Cable Robin Generator

9706

1

 

82

Domino Camping Stove + Metal Cup

9510

1

62

* Tap for Supertank n° 57027

9503

2

 

83

Sensitive Paper Tape

Hosp

1

63

* Screw Spanner 10, 12-13, 14-17

9701/2

3

 

84

Steribags

Hosp

3

64

* Pliers

4513

1

 

85

Paraffin Bottle

Hosp

1

65

* Sharp Pliers

4512

1

 

86

Paraffin Lamp & Funnel

ZW

1

66

* Big & Little Screw Spanner

4598/9

2

 

87

Pressure Pot, Perforated Bottom, Save Valve, Lid

9908

1

67

* Dish Screwdriver Set

4504

1

 

88

Candles & Matches

Hosp

1

68

* Plastic Dams

4507

2

 

89

Hatchet White & Red

ZW

1

69

* Electrical Screwdriver

4515

1

 

90

Paraffin Cooker

ZW

1

70

* Teflon Tape

4517

1

 

91

Migros Working Gloves (Pair)

CH/ZW

1

71

* Flat Nose Pliers

4514

1

 

 

 

 

 

72

* Hose Clips

4516

2

 

 

 

 

 

73

* Insulating Tape + Scotch Tape

Hosp

2

 

 

 

 

 

74

*String (in meters)

Hosp

15

 

 

 

 

 

75

Mirror Box With

ZW

1

 

 

Mecadent Dentaport Suitcase M 101

9900

1

76

* Demo Looking Glasses

9004

8

 

92

Flexiflon Tube & Pedal (6 x 4)

9902

1

77

* Chalk Box for Blackboard

9006

1

 

93

Air Tube with Midwest Connection (to n° 46)

9915

1

78

* Displak Coloration Bottle

9005

1

 

94

Air-Water Pistol Faro With Tube

9911

1

79

* Cotton Balls For Displak Application

3007 b

10

 

95

Support for Pistol And Contra-angles & Screw

9911 a

1

 

 

 

 

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SDI Code

 

 

 

SDI Code

 

Big Black Trunk n° One

 

 

 

 

Big Black Trunk N° Two

 

 

96

Inox Steel Kitchen Utensil

9514

1

 

118

Silamat-Silver Mix 90 Amalgamator

9903

1

97

"Campina" Service (knife, fork, b & s spoon)

9513

2

 

119

Plate Drier Small/Big Or Kitchen Linen

9518

9

98

"Marco" Plate Aluminium 18 cm

9512

2

 

120

Red Basin For Sekusept

9515

1

99

Blue Basin With Lid (Sadza)

ZW

1

 

121

Green Basin For Vimbath

9516

1

100

Orange Basin With Lid (Vegetables, Soup, Meat)

ZW

1

 

123

"Marco" Glass In Aluminium

9511

2

101

Little Blue Lunchbox (sugar, rice, spices)

ZW

3

 

124

Sekusept Granulated Little

3127

1

102

Bottle Of Oil (Olivine)

Hosp

1

 

125

Orotol Granulated (Tin)

3005

1

103

Dish Soap Bottle (Sunlight)

Hosp

1

 

126

Hypochlorite Disinfection-Solution-Spray

1016

1

104

Shower Soap (FA Light)

Hosp

1

 

127

Styrolog 1 Drawer

1014 g

1

105

Toilet Paper Rolls

Hosp

2

 

128

Svedia Tray Cover 4030-00

2067 a

7

106

Pillow

Hosp

2

 

129

Duett Ana 2000 Amalgam Caps Set

3056

1

107

Big Cooking Pot

ZW

1

 

130

Decontamination Bath Brown With Cover

CH

1

108

Little Cooking Pot with Lid (=>pan)

ZW

1

 

131

Suction Tip Brushes Small 5mm

3132

10

109

Teapot With Lid

ZW

1

 

132

Suction Tip Brushes Wide 10mm

3131

10

110

Tea Plastic Cups

ZW

2

 

133

Metal Brush For Burrs

3100

1

111

M'Goti (Porridge Stick)

ZW-Art

1

 

134

Kitchen Brush (see n° 115)

CH

2

112

Swiss Knife

CH

1

 

135

Tray Brush

3132 a

1

113

Low Basin Green-White

ZW

1

 

136

Basin For Suction Tubes Disinfection (Orotol)

3005 a

1

114

Strainer (Sieve)

CH

1

 

137

Scissors

CH

1

115

Kitchen Brush

CH

1

 

138

Vim (Cleaning Powder)

Hosp

1

116

Kitchen Scourer

ZW

3

 

139

Soap (FA Light)

Hosp

2

 

 

 

 

 

140

Cream For Hands

Hosp

1

117

food-salt, tea leaves, coffee,

 

 

 

141

Roller Gauze

Hosp

1

 

tomatoes, matemba (fishes from Kariba),

 

 

 

142

Toilet Paper Rolls

Hosp

2

 

powder milk, bread, margarine,

 

 

 

143

Washing Powder (Surf)

Hosp

1

 

soups, tunafish, sadza,

 

 

 

144

Cleaning Cloth Piece Green

Hosp

1

 

Pilchards tomato sauce, rape,

 

 

 

145

Pet Bottle 1.5 liters

CH

1

 

other vegetables, rice,

 

 

 

146

Amalgame Rests Bottle (Recycling)

Hosp

1

 

sweet potatoes...

 

 

 

147

Bottle with Talk Powder For Gloves Sterilization

Hosp

1

 

 

 

 

 

148

Sieve For Burrs (same as n° 114)

CH

1

 

 

 

 

 

149

Migros Torch

CH

2

 

 

 

 

 

150

Spare Bulb For Migros Torch

CH

2

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

"Zarges" Case for Instruments in Aluminium Number One

9500

1

 

 

 

 

 

151

Styrolog 3 Drawers:

1014 e

1

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1. Pharmacy & Cotton Rolls

 

 

 

 

3.Anesthesia

 

 

152

Long Plastic Subdivision

1014 a

4

 

185

Big Red Plastic Subdivision

1014 b

1

153

Amoxicilline (1gr caps)

8003

40

 

186

Long Red Plastic Subdivision

1014 a

1

154

Co-trimoxazole (Bactrim 80mg + 400mg caps)

Hosp

40

 

187

Aspirating Syringe Socorex PD 1.8ml

2005

16

155

Panadol (500mg caps)

Hosp

40

 

188

Needles Septodont 27G

3002

50

156

Micropur 20 liters (20x)

9803

40

 

189

Anesthetic Carpule Lidocaton 2%

3001

50

157

Vaseline

8005

1

 

 

 

 

 

158

Aureomycine (Paste, 30gr Tube)

8007

1

 

 

 

 

 

159

Dontisolon (1.8ml Carpule)

3106

4

 

 

 

 

 

160

Plastic Syringe

2026

2

 

 

 

 

 

161

Canal Luer Bent Tip for Syringe

2075

3

 

 

 

 

 

162

Spray for Vitality Test

3007 a

1

 

 

Styrolog 3 Drawers:

1014 e

1

163

Cotton Rolls n° 2

3013 a

100

 

 

 

 

 

164

Cotten Rolls n° 3

3013 b

50

 

 

4.Gloves

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

190

Latex Gloves Sterilizable (Pairs)

3006

50

 

2. Burrs, Periodontics, Prophylaxis

 

 

 

191

Preservatives / Kondoms

Hosp

100

165

Burlew Cups PN-210320 with Mandrels Long

7020/22 b

6

 

 

 

 

 

166

Polishing Cups Young WST

7023

20

 

 

5. Masks & Emergency Pharmacy

 

 

167

Inverse Cone Shaped Diamond Burr Intensiv FG 223/014

7001

8

 

192

Face Mask Technol

3008

30

168

Cone Shaped Diamond Burr Intensiv FG D 16

7002

4

 

193

Micropur 20 liters (20x) same as n° 156

9803

20

169

Round Diamond Burr Intensiv FG 201 S

7003

3

 

194

Aspirine (500mg caps)

8002

200

170

Flame Shaped Diamond Burr Intensiv FG 205 L

7004

2

 

195

Adrenaline 1ml (dosis ampulla)

Ch

3

171

Round Diamond Burr Intensiv FG 400

7005

3

 

196

Valium 2 ml (dosis ampulla)

CH

3

172

Cone Shaped Diamond Burr Intensiv FG D 6C

7006

6

 

197

NaCl 0.9% (dosis ampulla)

CH

6

173

Round Burr WST REF 23/025

7010

11

 

198

Syringe 10ml & Needle

CH

1/1

174

Round Burr WST REF 23/018

7011

10

 

 

 

 

 

175

Round Burr WST REF 23/029

7012

10

 

 

6.Forceps

 

 

176

Round Burr WST REF 23/023

7013

11

 

199

Big Plastic Subdivision

1014 b

1

177

Zekrya FG REF 151 Short

7030

5

 

200

Long Red Plastic Subdivision

1014 a

2

178

Zekrya FG REF 151 28mm

7031

5

 

201

Forceps For Upper Incisors

2031

1

179

Paired or Modified Scaler RZI 11L

2061

5

 

202

Forceps For Upper Left Molar n° M18

2032

3

180

Straight Sickle Scaler ZI 11

2062

5

 

203

Forceps For Upper Right Molar n° M17

2033

3

181

Universal Paro Currette ZI 15

2066

5

 

204

Forceps For Upper Premolars

2034

2

182

Long Red Plastic Subdivision

1014 a

1

 

205

Forceps For Lower Molars

2038

6

183

Cutter Socle U-72 FG

2071 a

1

 

206

Forceps For Lower Premolars

2039

2

184

Cutter Socle U-72 WST

2071 b

1

 

207

Forceps For Lower Incisors

2040

1

 

 

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SDI Code

 

 

 

SDI Code

 

"Zarges" Case for Instruments in Aluminium Number Two

9500

1

 

 

 

 

 

208

Styrolog 3 Drawers:

1014 e

1

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

7. Elevators, Surgery

 

 

 

248

Amalgame Carver Deppeler SM 17

2049

5

209

Long Red Plastic Subdivision

1014 a

4

 

249

Ball-Pointed Probe 126 BR 127

2056

5

210

Elevator Bein 559/1 n°00

2009

7

 

250

Excavator Deppeler 17 EX 16

2051

5

211

Elevator bein 559/2 n° 15

2010

7

 

251

Amalgame Carrier 941 Hawe

2048

5

212

Alveolar Currette Deppeler AL 5

2022

5

 

252

Amalgame Probe OP 43

2050

5

213

Remanium Wire 0.3mm Ligature (7m)

3077

1

 

253

Luniacheck Deppeler Spatula For Medications

2083

2

214

Remanium Wire 0.8 mm Fixation

5012

1

 

254

Red Occlusion Paper Bausch

3075

2

215

Scalpel 871A/3PD

2025

1

 

255

Matrix For Matrix Holder (Mol & Premol)

3112-5

20

216

Surgical Blades #15

3023

20

 

 

 

 

 

217

Suturing Materials with Needles

3023 a+b

10

 

 

 

 

 

218

Langenbeck-Holder

2027

1

 

256

Styrolog 3 Drawers:

1014 e

1

219

Raspatorium #1804

2021

1

 

 

 

 

 

220

Gum Scissors PD

2023

2

 

 

10. Annex's to Mecadent Unit

 

 

221

Luer-Forceps Martin #1831/3

2076

1

 

257

Aluminium Box 21/10/3 With Sterile Gauzes

1049

1

222

Mathieu Needle Holder #1160/17

2018

1

 

258

Handpiece MM 47 IS

1026

1

223

Hemostat #1894/12.5

2015

1

 

259

Cotton Balls In Little Bottle (evt same as n° 79)

CH

1

224

Pliers Pointed #1301

2042

1

 

260

Green Contraangle 10 ISN n° 92 04 026

1027

1

 

 

 

 

 

261

Red Contraangle ISO 150 IS n° 92 01 020

1028

1

225

8.Cements, Endodontics

 

 

 

262

Star Titan-S 4-Line

9910

1

226

Long Red Plastic Subdivision

1014 a

2

 

263

Titan Key For Tips, Plastic O-rings

9910 b

1/1

227

Small Red Plastic Subdivision

1014 d

1

 

264

Universal Tip For Titan-S

9910 a

3

228

Dropsine Liquid and Powder 15ml / 45gr

3067 a+b

1/1

 

265

Micromotor Air MM 38 A Midwest 4

1030

1

229

IRM Liquid And Powder

3096

1

 

266

Lubricating Oil For handpiece MM 30 CC

3098

1

230

Endomethazone Liquid and Powder 10ml / 14 gr

3033

1/1

 

267

Lubricating Oil For Handpiece mm 1 liter

3098 a

1

231

Plac Out 50 ml #454

8011

1

 

 

 

 

 

232

Cement Paper Plate

2052 a

1

 

 

11. Suctions

 

 

233

Cement Spatula PD n° 80

2055

5

 

268

Long Red Plastic Subdivision

1014 a

1

234

Tray For Root-Canal Intruments & Contenance

2041

1

 

269

Middle Red Plastic Subdivision

1014 c

1

235

Chlumsky Solution (Chlor-Camphre-Phenol)

3017

1

 

270

Small Red Plastic Subdivision

1014 d

1

236

Rubber Elastic Tube to Drain Abscess Small

3020

1

 

271

Metallic Suction Tip "A" PD

2002

20

237

Rubber Elastic Tube to Drain Abscess Wide

3021

1

 

272

Metallic Surgilac Suction Tip Duerr

2003

20

238

Asphaline-A2 Paste Tube 7.5 gr

3028

2

 

273

Prophypaste Cup Hawe #985

3093

10

239

Ledermix Dental Paste Tube 5 gr

3027

1

 

274

Needles Septodont 27G reserve

3002

100

240

Paper Points Assorted

3031 d

1

 

275

Anesthetic Carpule Lidocaton 2% reserve

3001

50

241

Amalgam Resimix Little Pot

2047

3

 

276

Prophypaste 50 gr

3094

1

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

9. Instruments & Amalgame

 

 

 

 

12. Mirrors, Probes, Tweezers

 

 

242

Long Red Plastic Subdivision

1014 a

4

 

277

Big Red Plastic Subdivision

1014 b

1

243

Iodoform Gauze

8010

1

 

278

Long Red Plastic Subdivision

1014 a

2

244

Dentatus Toffelmair Matrix Holder

2053

1

 

279

Instrument Holder Duerr

3128

2

245

Steel Matrix Holder PD #1

3111

1

 

280

Cotton Roll Pliers VR 1410 (Tweezer)

2060

20

246

Interdental Wooden Wedges #829/20

3064

100

 

281

Handle Mirror Adaco & Mirror Adaco

2065/68

40

247

Filling Spatula Deppeler ZI 62C

2058

5

 

282

Explorer Maillefer n° 6 (Probe)

2064

20

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Divers Annex's

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

283

AOI / Colgate Poster

9003

1

 

296

Gazoil Tank With Diesel For Generator 20 liters

9506

1

284

Poster Information Dental Department

ZW

3

 

297

Funnel For Gazoil Tank

9506 a

1

285

AIDS Instruction Poster

CH

1

 

298

Water Tank "Super" 20 liters n° 57026

9502

2

286

Magic Table n° 44020

9501

2

 

299

Aluminium Folding Chair n° 43016

9504

2

287

Plastic Bucket Blue

ZW

1

 

300

Standard Camping Couch

9509

1

288

Container With Paraffin

ZW

1

 

301

Hospital Collapsible Beds

Hosp

2

289

Plastic Bucket For Gloves Purple

ZW

1

 

302

Blankets, Sheets, Pillowcases

Hosp

2

290

Plastic Bucket For Used Water Green

9917

1

 

303

Personal Luggage

ZW

 

291

Multiple Jack 220V

9914

1

 

304

Katadyn KFT Filter (Pump)

9802

1

292

Electrical Extension Cable 10m / 220V

9703 a

2

 

305

Katadyn Filter LP-K7 (spare)

1047 a

1*

293

Bur'n'Bin For Contaminated Sharps Yellow

ZW

1

 

306

Aseptico Dental Chair (for Patient)

9800

1

294

Oil Container For Generator Yellow / Black

ZW

1

 

307

Aseptico Dental Stool (for Operators)

9801

2

295

Robin Oil Gauge

9703

1

 

308

Philips Lamp Tripod (see n° 55)

9904

1

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

*

materials which stay at the clinic (stock)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

QV, SDI, 22.07.98

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 


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                                    Loading Check-list For The Dental Car

 

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                                                                        Materials on the rear axle:

 

                                                                        1.               Wooden Rack Blue (Wedge)

                                                                        2.               Oil Container

                                                                        3.               Water Pump Katadyn

                                                                        4.               First Big Black Trunk

                                                                        5.               Little Wooden Rack Red (Wedge)

                                                                        6.               Second Big Black Trunk

                                                                        7.               Middle Black Trunk (lock against n° 6.)

                                                                        8.               Little Black Trunk (lock against n° 6.)

                                                                        9.               Mecadent Dentaport Suitcase

                                                                        10.             First Aseptico Dental Stool

                                                                        11.             Rain Water Tank (without the tap)

                                                                        12.             Normal Water Tank (without the tap)

                                                                        13.             Magic Tables 2x (surface against surface)

                                                                        14.             Generator Box Blue

                                                                        15.             Compressor Box Blue

                                                                        16.             Zarges Cases (one  on top of the other)

                                                                        17.             Second Aseptico Dental Stool

                                                                        18.             Posters &  2 Folding Chairs

                                                                        19.             Aseptico Dental Chair

                                                                        20.             First Hospital Collapsible Bed

                                                                        21.             Gazoil Tank with Diesel

                                                                        22.             Funnel for Diesel Tank

                                                                        23.             Robin Oil Gauge

                                                                        24.             Philips Lamp Tripod

                                                                        25.             Standard Camping Couch

                                                                        26.             Second Hospital Collapsible Bed

 

 

                                                                        Materials on the front seat:

 

                                                                        27.             ORW File

                                                                        28.             First Bucket with 2 Extensions

                                                                                          Cables and 1 Multiple Jack

                                                                        29.             Second Bucket with 1 Bucket and

                                                                                          1 Bur’n’bin

                                                                        30.             Personal Luggage

                                                                        31.             2 Blankets, 2 Sheets, 2 Pillowcases

                                                                        32.             Fresh Food

                                                                        33.             Little Drinking Water Tank

 

Accessible materials in case of a car breakdown:

 

34.             All tools necessary for a wheel change

35.             All tools necessary for a tube puncture

                                                                                          repair or a valve defect

36.             Water for the radiator

37.             Something to read

38.             Drivers license and eventually your sunglasses

 

 


 

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File written by Adobe Photoshop® 4.0

 

 

File written by Adobe Photoshop® 4.0

 

 

 

 

 

 

File written by Adobe Photoshop® 4.0

 

 



SEVENTH STEP: Organization

 

It is a very interesting experience to go out into the bush and do dental health work, but do not forget that everything has to be well organized and so you will need to have a special file containing all the important papers. Our ORW file in Chikombedzi is structured the following way:

 

                                                                                                                        description in

 

1. Outreach Work Program For The Year                                       2nd & 5th    step

            2. Important Addresses And School Addresses                                    3rd       step

            3. Questions To Ask During Your First Visit Into An ORW Area             4th       step

            4. Indications For The Responsible Of The RHC’s                                4th       step

            5. Check-list For The ORW Equipment                                                  6th       step

            6. Loading Check-list                                                                            6th       step

            7. Memory-Aid For Teachers                                                                 8th       step

            8. Oral Health Education Registration                                                   8th       step

            9. Daily Registration Of Patients In ORW                                              8th       step

            10. ORW Statistics (Prophylaxis And MDU)                                           8th       step

            11. ORW Evaluations                                                                           8th       step

            12. Receipts For Cash Income                                                             8th       step

            13. Check-list For MDU Equipment                                                       9th       step

            14. Checklist For The ORW File                                                            9th       step

            15. ORW Report To The Medical Superintendant                                 9th       step

            16. Information Letter For The RHC’s And For The Teachers                9th       step

            17. Letter From The Medical Superintendant

                   Certifying The Dental Activities                                                      10th     step

            18. Medical-Aid Forms And It’s Check-list                                              10th     step

            19. Services And Rates                                                                        11th     step

            20. Monthly Accounts                                                                           12th     step

 

 

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EIGHT STEP: Going out into the bush

 

 

Once the mobile dental unit has arrived on location, the car is unloaded and the mobile dental unit is set up in the allocated room. A test should be made to see if everything is in working order and posters can be hung on the walls of the RHC. The next duty will be to contact the directors of the surrounding schools and to make appointments for the oral health education courses. If possible, the lessons will be given the same day in the afternoon, so then the children return home and inform their parents of your stay. These lessons are structured after those presented on document 7, the “Memory-Aid For Teachers”. This memory-aid can be used for further lessons given by the teachers themselves after your departure. Normally, during your first visit, a basic oral health education instruction is done. In the first theoretical part, you focus onto the importance of the mouth and its structures. A detailed description of the teeth and its brushing follows. In a second more practical part, the meaning of “dental plaque” is demonstrated with the disclosing solution. The children will then have to make their own wooden toothbrush and clean their teeth the way it has been instructed. At last, a little test can be done by the teachers. Six months later, during your second stay, the children come to the lesson with their own sticks. An oral health education review is done and finally, everyone is checked on his manner (technique) to brush his teeth.

 

After the lessons, we usually have the opportunity to screen all the classrooms which have benefited from oral health education and the children presenting calculus (tartar) or dental caries are requested to come for treatment at the (mobile dental unit) MDU.

 

Should there be extra time remaining, a short lesson on AIDS prevention may be added.

 

 

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Dental Department Chikombedzi Mission Hospital

 

Memory-Aid For Teachers Concerning Prophylactic Lessons At Schools  (doc 7)

 

Lesson One (grades 1 to 7)

 

5’.   Introduction and information about the Dental Department at Chikombedzi Mission Hospital and the outreach

File written by Adobe Photoshop® 4.0      work program with the mobile dental unit (MDU). Next dates of our visits.

 

5’.   The face: Importance of the eyes, the ears, the hair, the nose, the mouth and the teeth

 

5’.   The mouth: Importance of...

 

File written by Adobe Photoshop® 4.0            Teeth: cutting (front teeth), chewing (back teeth), mixing (all teeth)

            Tongue: talking, tasting, whistling

            Gums: keep the teeth strong

            Salivary glands: production of saliva

            Saliva: swallowing, mixing, digesting products

 

How to protect the teeth?

 

15’.       Harmful food                                                       15’.       Brushing of the teeth

            Be aware of the danger of sugar                                        Kind of wood to use (lesson 3)

File written by Adobe Photoshop® 4.0                                                                                                Make a toothbrush (annex)

                                                                                                How to brush (annex)

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5’    Consequences:

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                                                CARIES induces pain

                                                TARTAR induces pain

 

 

5’.   Discussion with the teacher, questions and answers

 

Total time: 55 minutes

 

 

Lesson Two (to add to Lesson One, only for grades 4 to 7)

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            kind of teeth       number              anatomy            roots

 

            1. Incisors           8                    in front              1

            2. Canines           4                    in front              1

            3. Premolars         8                    at the back        1(2)

            4. Molars           12                    at the back        2 + 3

 

            Notice that:

            . the front teeth cut the food into pieces

            . the back teeth chew and grind the pieces of food

                                                                       

            Milk teeth are important because:

. the baby (or milk) teeth are adapted for a little mouth

            . the baby teeth keep the place for the permanent teeth

 


20’.   Discovering of a tooth, its tissues and diseases

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File written by Adobe Photoshop® 4.0ENAMEL                                                            No tooth-brushing but sugar -> little

DENTINE           CROWN                                     caries -> big caries -> nerve dies ->

GUM                                                                 abscess ->pus  & pain -> removal of the

tooth

                                                                       

PULP

(nerves & vessels           )                                   No tooth-brushing -> bacteria's stay

ROOT                                                    against the gums -> plaque -> tartar ->

CEMENT                                                            inflammation of the gums -> pain ->           

BONE                                                                scaling of tartar or removal of tooth

 

 

            Treatments for caries: If little caries -> filling. If big caries -> removal of the tooth, tooth lost.

            Treatment of tartar: Scaling / cleaning. If severe, the tooth has to be removed.

 

            Notice:  While you’re teaching this chapter with the help of a drawing on the black board, modify the                             

            healthy  situation into an ill situation.

 

10’.   Discussion with the class, questions and answers

 

Total time: 55  minutes

 

Lesson Three (grades 4 to 7 or second lesson for grades 1 to 3)

 

This lesson is to learn how to produce a wooden toothbrush. First you’ll have to teach the kind of trees from which

the wood can be used. Mupani, Mubhubhunu, Muhlangula, Samani trees (names in Shona) or other harmless trees

can be indicated for this purpose. Teach the way of how to produce a toothbrush, you’ll find indications in the

annex part. The following day, each pupil comes with his own toothbrush. One pupil is then selected, comes in

front of the class and does a demonstration of tooth brushing. Then form groups of two pupils and they will have

to control each other. The teacher controls the brushing technique. The teacher can give some more explanations

and repeats the frequency of brushing required: 3 TIMES A DAY!

 

Test (only for grades 4 to 7)

 

1. How many teeth do we have in a 25 years old person's mouth?                  3 points

2. What kind of teeth do we have in our mouths?                                         4 points

3. Do a good drawing of a tooth and put the following name:

   Enamel, Dentine, Bone, Pulp, Gum, Root, Crown, Cement                          8 points

4. Which are the two great diseases of the teeth?                                        2 points

5. Give two possibilities to prevent these diseases.                                     2 points

6. Give two names of trees with advisable wood to produce a toothbrush.       2 points

7. Give the name of two harmless and two harmful foods                              4 points

 

Scale:   23 - 25  points A (92% )

            19 - 22 points B (76% )

            15 - 18 points C (60%)                            Total 25 points possible.

            10 - 14 points D (40%)

               5 -  9 points E (20 %)

               0 - 4   points F (16%)

 

 

Two songs in Shona

 

            1. KWESHA, BVISA, IMWA MVURA, CHUKUCHA, PFIRA

            Repeat movements and words together

 

            2.         Mativi mana ose enyika                (2 times)

                        Uyai muone vemazino

 

                        Mazino akanaka akachena outano (4 times)

 

 

 

Annex

 

Technique of brushing the teeth

 

NORMAL                        WOODEN

TOOTH BRUSH               TOOTH BRUSH

 

 

 

-Brush upper and lower teeth separately, open your                                                                                                

mouth as wide as possible.

                                                                       

-Areas to brush: external, internal, occlusal (upper)

sides of the teeth.

 

-Always brush from the gums to the teeth, never the